Social Design

Back to RSD3 proceedings overview


 

Bhaskar Bhatt. Saving Lives, By Design: Using Systems Thinking To Combat Maternal Mortality In India

 

Abstract

This paper deals with the application of systems thinking & design principles in healthcare in India. In a unique trans-disciplinary experiment, a team of product design students & professors worked with doctors, healthcare providers & engineers to apply systems thinking to the complex problem of maternal mortality in Indian society. Several new methods & frameworks were developed through the project, resulting in practical development of unique product solutions. In this paper, we attempt to illustrate the process of inquiry, application of systems thinking, development of the systems relationship model & design interventions thereby illustrating the need and efficacy of systems thinking.
Maternal mortality is defined as the death of a pregnant woman during pregnancy or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death, measure per 100,000 live births. This problem is profound in developing nations with lax medical facilities. The Millennium Development Goals 5 adopted by nations across the world seeks to improve maternal health by reducing by 75%, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio from 437 to 109 per 100,000; & achieve by 2015, universal access to reproductive health. Present estimates available from Sample Registration System (SRS) based studies state that the national MMR level has come down from 327 per 100,000 live births in 1999-2001 to 212 per 100,000 live births in 2007-09, registering a decline of 35.2% over a span of eight years.This project demonstrates the efficacy and a strong need for the application of systems thinking in complex socio-economic situations. While domain experts propose solutions, it is often inadequate, in isolation as the complex inter-relationships are ignored. Systems’ thinking promises a highly effective approach that binds multidisciplinary teams to analyse, design and implement solutions from a holistic perspective, which would result in solutions that are truly effective.

 

Presentation

 

 


 

Ana Laura Rodrigues Santos, Jairo Da Costa Junior and Linda Wauben. Designing products and services for challenging societal contexts

 

Abstract

This study is a follow-up of the study presented at the previous RSD symposium, where a systems approach was proposed to address complex problems in challenging societal contexts. This study focuses on an elective course called Product-Service Systems from the Industrial Design Engineering Master Programme provided by the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at Delft University of Technology (DUT) in collaboration with the Federal University of Paraná in Brazil and the innovation section of the international organization Medécins Sans Frontières in Sweden. Our aim is to describe advantages and challenges of the use of a systems design approach when addressing the need for affordable energy in low-income households in Brazil and the need in humanitarian aid of sterilization and of cold chain monitoring.
One particular challenge shared by humanitarian organizations and governments when providing services such as healthcare and energy to populations or local institutions with poor financial and infrastructural resources is the need for alternatives to traditional business. To succeed, these stakeholders need to adopt several unconventional tasks like product distribution and servicing which, in most cases, customers or end-users are not capable of affording [1]. In resource-limited social contexts, the complexity and ambiguity between the interests within the network of stakeholders is higher than in traditional businesses [2] and the end user is mostly considered as a passive recipient, dependent on own coping mechanisms to benefit from the provided services.

 

Designing products and services for challenging societal contexts (PDF)

 

Presentation

 


 

Matthew Hollingshead and Josina Vink. Now and Then: Co-Designing Systems Smart Enough for the Future

 

Abstract

What happens when a diverse group of community stakeholders collaborate to design systems change aimed at shifting legacy health and social systems toward becoming people-powered supports that learn and adapt? This presentation uses the case example of the Northwest Toronto Service Collaborative, a cross-sectoral partnership between service providers, youth, and families to implement systems change aimed at improving the appropriateness of supports for children and youth with mental health and addictions needs in Northwest Toronto. Grounded in this example, presenters will explore the emerging practices of co-design at a systems-level, creating cross-sectoral design communities, designing systems with adaptive capacity, and moving beyond sustainability toward emergence.

 

Now and Then: Co-Designing Systems (PDF) 

 

Presentation

 


 

Theresa Berg, Suvi Kajamaa and Claudia Garduño García. Benefits of Design Practice in Fieldwork: How ‘Artesanía para el Bienestar’ emerged in the field as a concept to Improve access to Healthcare in a Mayan Community in Campeche, Mexico

 

Abstract

Design, as a discipline can make significant contributions through framing complex issues. This paper explores the values that design practice can offer in the field that cannot be created from a distance with a traditional solution seeking process. This paper presents research showing the benefit of having designers in the field and is based on a project taking place in a Mayan-community in Campeche, Mexico where design thinking was utilized as a tool for achieving sustainable societal change and increasing proactive planning in the community; specifically by generating concepts for improving healthcare. The case study herein presented, ´Artesanía para el Bienestar` (Artistry for Wellbeing) includes fieldwork that took place in the community in 2013. The goal of the fieldwork was to find solutions to increase the community´s access to healthcare and to involve a specific group of stakeholders, artisans, to this process of developing the future of the community.
The essence of this paper is not to examine the result of the design process in regard to concepts and solutions created around the topic of healthcare, rather it presents the values and multiple benefits a design process in the field can bring apart from the “end-result” solutions. This case study contributes to the discussion of the role of design, and encourages designers to try new possibilities and directions in design. To achieve sustainable societal change, these aspects of design should be considered and recognized as values in future projects. Research in emergent areas such as social design and social innovation need to grow to support this process. Fuad-Luke (2013) argue that the potential of design research work to lever positive change is significant if it can move beyond the confines of academic discourse, scale up, and find mutually interested partners for these projects to capture the popular imagination.

 

Benefits of Design Practice in Fieldwork (PDF)

 

Berg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation

 


 

Sine Celik, Peter Joore and Han Brezet. Facilitating Creative Networks

 

Abstract

This research reflects on the potential of innovation networks made up of ‘creative hubs’ as facilitators of design in a local context, by using the SPRNG! project from Leeuwarden as a case study, analyzing the initiative based on a systemic multilevel design perspective. In this approach, an iterative four phase cyclic design process is being combined with a hierarchical systems perspective (Joore 2012).
Briefly described, creative hubs are physical spaces that host artists, designers, small companies, collaborations or events related to these. While providing networking opportunities, these hubs also help creative individuals to achieve their aims. Creative hubs receive many different names, varying from ‘collectives’ to ‘incubators’, yet it is possible to identify a common goal of improving creative businesses holistically.

 

 Facilitating Creative Networks (PDF)

 

Presentation

 


 

Doaa El Aidi. Analyzing, Projecting and Synthesizing Real-World Problem from a designer perspective: Exploratory study to tackle poverty in Egypt

 

Abstract

In design thinking, tackling Real-world problems is considered one of the most challenging issues; because these kinds of problems are complex, dynamic and cutting across different disciplines. Due to their complexity nature, the traditional design thinking – conceived as 1st generation methods – failed to let designers cope with such complex problems and considered the first obstacle in approaching Real-World problems. Therefore, designers must change their traditional way of thinking and acting in order to fulfill their new role in dealing with such complex problem and the question is how? What kind of methods and tools do designers need to develop their skills for coping with challenges they are facing; especially when they approaching Real-world-problems?
In this respect, the purpose of this study is twofold: to explore the answer of the previous raised question in a pragmatic way, as well as, to fill the gab between theoretical concepts and practical experiences through developing tangible solutions. Whereas, the ultimate aim of this study is to build bridge between academic research (efforts) and reality through dealing with society problems in a scientific way.
To accomplish the study’s purpose, a case study is chosen to explore the problem under real circumstances. Approaching Real-world problem such as tackling poverty in Egypt led to choose Al-Darb Al-Ahmar Revitalization Project (DAR). It is one of Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) projects running in Egypt that dealing with complex reality. This project aims at providing a comprehensive strategy that helps poor people to structure their life in a sustainable way. One particular program has been chosen as an intervention point called ‘Local Crafts development’ and data is collected through different project’s annual reports and through conducting expert interviews; using open-end questions to get more insight about project’s different activities.

 

Analyzing, Projecting and Synthesizing Real-World Problem (PDF)
Presentation